Under the new Obama health care law changes routine screenings are supposed to be free, but patients must educate themselves as to what is free (a "screening") and what is subject to a charge (a "diagnostic procedure"). The problem is that a routine screening can become a diagnostic procedure midstream, while the patient is sedated. Pretty hard to discuss with the doctor if you want them to continue with that procedure when you're unconscious. This article posted earlier today details the exact problem for a 61-year old business owner who went from having a free colonoscopy as recommended to paying an $1,100 fee for having two polyps removed. Bottom line (no pun intended) is to TALK to your insurer prior to any procedure and understand what it COULD cost you. Never assume.